Richard Rolle’s English letter The Form of Living examines self-injurious behavior by anchorites and other ascetics not by condemning it wholesale but by resisting its logic of renunciation. This logic sought to abolish interiority’s multiplicities and to render the subject more strictly unified and calculating, a subject stripped of otherwise inextricable ties to its “other” (both within and beyond the subject) for whom penance is performed. The Form argues that extreme ascesis did not necessarily entail a reduction of the self to an exterior presence and fullness, nor did it inevitably assimilate the ritually exteriorized subject to its social engagements and towards an abolishment of the inner life. Yet penitential practices often lead to an exploitation of the body in these terms and do so through a disavowal of fragility — a fragility that for Rolle was essential to and constitutive of the contemplative subject.
The nervous system of vertebrates is derived from an early embryonic region referred to as the neural plate. In the chick embryo, the neural plate is populated by neural stem cells specified from the epiblast shortly after the onset of gastrulation. Accompanying the formation of the plate, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans are expressed in the basal extracellular matrix. We describe in vitro experiments measuring cell adhesion of epiblast cells during the formation of the neural plate. Our findings may suggest that neural stem cells are set apart from non-neural epiblast by changes in relative cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Specifically, changes in cell adhesion separating neural stem cells from the non-neural epiblast may be augmented by the presence of exogenous chondroitin-6-sulfate in the epiblast basal lamina at the time neural progenitors are specified in the epiblast.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training among self-reported mood disturbances, perceived stress, frequency of self-reported symptoms, and symptom distress in a sample of HIV + adults. For this purpose, 49 participants were randomly assigned into an exercise (EX) or control (CON) group. Those in the EX group completed 50 min of supervised aerobic and resistance training at a moderate intensity twice a week for 6 weeks. The CON group reported to the university and engaged in sedentary activities. Data were collected at baseline before randomization and 6 weeks post intervention. Measures included the symptom distress scale (SDS), perceived stress scale (PSS), profile of mood states (POMS) total score, and the POMS sub-scale for depression and fatigue. A 2 way ANOVA was used to compare between and within group interactions. The EX group showed a significant decrease in reported depression scores (p = 0.03) and total POMS (p = 0.003). The CON group reported no change in POMS or SDS, but showed a significant increase in PSS. These findings indicate that combination aerobic and resistance training completed at a moderate intensity at least twice a week provides additional psychological benefits independent of disease status and related symptoms.
Aerobic and Resistance Training Improves Mood State among Adults Living with HIV
By: Jason R. Jaggers, Hand, G. A., Dudgeon, W. D., Burgess, S., Phillips, K.D., Durstine, J.L., and Blair, S. N. International Journal of Sports Medicine Feb. 2015, vol. 36 (2), pgs. 175-181