The recently introduced construct of consumer sharing is represented as a nonreciprocal, pro-social distribution of resources given without expectation of reciprocity (Belk, 2010, Sharing’, Journal of Consumer Research 36: 715-34). The approach adopted rests on shaky ontological and epistemological grounds and reproduces an array of problematic modernist dichotomies (e.g., agency/structure, nurturing family/instrumental public, gift/market, and altruism/self-interest) that significantly constrain the analytical enterprise. This work redresses some of the conceptual problems in the current formulation. The critique highlights a focus on resource distribution based on a more holistic, socially grounded perspective on circulation. We offer the alternative concept of mutuality or generalized exchange and the metaphor of inclusion rather than exchange as central to this perspective. We argue this may provide a more sound basis for understanding alternative modes of circulation.
The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and
development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under
ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an
understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major
drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river
floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the
ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded
forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha
plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and
time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three
aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition,
and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of
different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and
intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock
intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots
alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but
had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low
activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were
strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that
the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood
duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods >= 140 d had not only
lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species
turnover relative to forests with short floods < 70 d. Overall, the
combined effects of livestock intensification and prolonged flooding
hindered forest regeneration, but overall forest integrity was largely
related to the hydrological regime and age. Given this disjunction
between factors mediating canopy and understory integrity, we present a
subset of metrics for regeneration and recruitment to distinguish forest
condition by livestock trajectory. Although our study design includes
confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major
drivers of ecological change, we provide much-needed data on the
regrowth of a critical but poorly studied ecosystem. In addition to its
emphasis on the dynamics of tropical wetland forests undergoing
anthropogenic and environmental change, our case study is an important
example for how to assess of ecological integrity in working forests of
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review selected publications in library-related literature and discuss the thematic approach to course design in colleges and universities and how it has been implemented into information literacy (IL) courses.
Design/methodology/approach – A literature review of peer-reviewed journals, professional journals, magazines and blogs contextualizes the thematic approach to instruction at the college and university levels. Search terms included “thematic approach”, “thematic approach in education” and “theme-based instruction”; the search was restricted to articles published in the past 20 years. Findings – In addition to the IL courses, thematic-based instruction has been used in biology, chemistry, English, French literature, history, mathematics, philosophy and sociology courses in college and university campuses. While instructors report that the thematic approach enhances student learning, few studies have directly tested the impact. No studies have been published within the library science literature.
Originality/value – Thematic approach is a newer concept in the world of IL instruction. While many professional journal articles and blog posts provide in-depth case studies of how thematic-based instruction has been implemented, this article draws from all disciplines and features a succinct summary of what works, what does not work and how to best implement a thematic approach in an IL course.
Objective: The present research examined the validity of self-report versus informant-report in relation to a performance-based indicator of adult ADHD.
Method: Archival data from 118 participants (52 males, 66 females) were used to compare Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale–Self-Report: Long Format (CAARS-S:L) and Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale–Observer Report: Long Format (CAARS-O:L) with discrepancy scores calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Third Edition (WAIS-III) Verbal Comprehension Index – Working Memory Index (VCI – WMI) and Perceptual-Organizational Index – Processing Speed Index (POI – PSI) scaled scores.
Results: Neither the self- nor informant-report formats of the CAARS were better predictors of discrepancies between WAIS-III Index scores. Intercorrelations between the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L revealed generally higher correlations between the same scales of different formats and among scales measuring externally visible symptoms. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that both the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L clinical scales contributed a significant proportion of variance in WAIS-III VCI – WMI discrepancy scores (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively). Conclusion: Results did not establish greater accuracy of self-report versus informant-report of ADHD symptomatology, rather demonstrate the need for multimodal assessment of ADHD in adults.
A series of 1-alkyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [NTf2] ionic liquids were prepared synthetically using azide–alkyne ‘click’ cyclization chemistry and their physicochemical and thermal properties were determined. Increasing the alkyl chain length resulted in increased viscosities and higher thermal transitions (Tg or Tm) with depressed molar conductivities. Walden plot analysis indicated that the ionicity of 1-butyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium [NTf2] was comparable to the analogous imidazolium system and higher than the 1,2,4-triazolium equivalent.
We have investigated the role chondroitin sulfate has on cell interactions during neural plate formation in the early chick embryo. Using tissue culture isolates from the prospective neural plate, we have measured neural gene expression profiles associated with neural stem cell differentiation. Removal of chondroitin sulfate from stage 4 neural plate tissue leads to altered associations of N-cadherin-positive neural progenitors and causes changes in the normal sequence of neural marker gene expression. Absence of chondroitin sulfate in the neural plate leads to reduced Sox2 expression and is accompanied by an increase in the expression of anterior markers of neural regionalization. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of chondroitin sulfate in the anterior chick embryo is instrumental in maintaining cells in the neural precursor state.
In this article we introduce the Internet of Things to the broad managerial community and explore one of its central tensions: convenience vs. privacy and secrecy. We clarify the ways in which IoT differs from Web 2.0 and then highlight opportunities, challenges, and managerial guidance. In addition, we explore the prominent issue of privacy and secrecy. Due to substantial increases in amounts of consumer-related data and their accessibility as well as potential tradeoffs in benefits associated with IoT and in properties of humanness associated with the consumer experience, the managerial issue of privacy is elevated to a level never before realized—perhaps on par with, or worthy of inclusion as an element of, the classic marketing mix.
The availability of reliable evidence for teaching practices after professional development is limited across science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, making the identification of professional development “best practices” and effective models for change difficult. We aimed to determine the extent to which postdoctoral fellows (i.e., future biology faculty) believed in and implemented evidence-based pedagogies after completion of a 2-yr professional development program, Faculty Institutes for Reforming Science Teaching (FIRST IV). Postdocs (PDs) attended a 2-yr training program during which they completed self-report assessments of their beliefs about teaching and gains in pedagogical knowledge and experience, and they provided copies of class assessments and video recordings of their teaching. The PDs reported greater use of learner-centered compared with teacher-centered strategies. These data were consistent with the results of expert reviews of teaching videos. The majority of PDs (86%) received video ratings that documented active engagement of students and implementation of learner-centered classrooms. Despite practice of higher-level cognition in class sessions, the items used by the PDs on their assessments of learning focused on lower-level cognitive skills. We attributed the high success of the FIRST IV program to our focus on inexperienced teachers, an iterative process of teaching practice and reflection, and development of and teaching a full course.
The nervous system of vertebrates is derived from an early embryonic region referred to as the neural plate. In the chick embryo, the neural plate is populated by neural stem cells specified from the epiblast shortly after the onset of gastrulation. Accompanying the formation of the plate, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans are expressed in the basal extracellular matrix. We describe in vitro experiments measuring cell adhesion of epiblast cells during the formation of the neural plate. Our findings may suggest that neural stem cells are set apart from non-neural epiblast by changes in relative cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Specifically, changes in cell adhesion separating neural stem cells from the non-neural epiblast may be augmented by the presence of exogenous chondroitin-6-sulfate in the epiblast basal lamina at the time neural progenitors are specified in the epiblast.