Anatomy of an Epidemic investigates a medical mystery: Why has the number of adults and children disabled by mental illness skyrocketed over the past fifty years? There are now more than four million people in the United States who receive a government disability check because of a mental illness, and the number continues to soar. Every day, 850 adults and 250 children with a mental illness are added to the government disability rolls. What is going on? — From the author’s website
Relational frame theory contains a foundational assumption that coherence (i.e., making sense) is reinforcing for verbally competent humans. That is, it is assumed that humans relate ambiguous stimuli together because they have an extensive learning history where doing so resulted in both effective environmental action and socially mediated reinforcement (e.g., praise, positive attention).
This investigation tested this core assumption of relational frame theory by analyzing response patterns to ambiguous stimuli in a matching-to-sample task (Study 1) and by assessing whether participants displayed a preference toward coherent contexts in a concurrent chains preparation (Study 2).
The majority of participants responded to ambiguous stimuli in ways that were internally consistent and congruent with their previous learning histories in the absence of any programmed contingencies. Many participants also displayed a preference toward contexts where coherent responding was possible, and there was a trend toward switching away in preference when it became increasingly costly to access the coherent context.
The major theoretical contributions of these findings are discussed.
In 2007, inventor and digital librarian Brewster Kahle gave a TED Talk about, “A Free Digital Library,” which would give “Universal access to all knowledge.” Today, you can use that library, which provides access to an archive of the World Wide Web, over 9 million eBooks and digital documents, 2.4 million videos, 2.8 million audio recordings, 120 thousand pieces of software, 1.1 million digitized images, and 162 thousand live concert recordings. Read below to learn about some of the different features and select collections.
The “Wayback Machine” has captured 469 billion pages on the Internet using web crawlers to give researchers the ability to access pages that are no longer live. Thus, you can potentially see a webpage that now reads “HTTP 404 Not Found” if you use the “Wayback Machine.” You can also use it to look at the history of a web page’s design, for example, see what the Murray State University Libraries’ page looked like in 2007–notice there is no Search. catalog, and no Twitter feed.
The Smithsonian Libraries collection is one of the largest library systems in the world and contains texts of all sorts, inculduding rare and old books that you can read online. These documents are very useful for understanding historical developments in human history. For example, here is a book published in 1671 that gives an account of early America and its inhabitants:
The LibriVox Free Audiobook Collection contains recordings of public domain texts (works that may be used freely without the permission of the former copyright owner) in multiple languages that you can download and listen to freely. This way you can study and exercise at the same time.
The Internet Arcade gives you the ability to play vintage-era video games using an online emulator. If you were writing a paper on the history of video game development, you could experience what it was like to use these games, like this 1982 classic, “Q*Bert”:
The Metropolitan Museum of Art – Gallery Images collection gives you access to over 140 thousand images from their collection. If you need images for a presentation that you are giving, or you are an Art History major, this collection is an invaluable resource. Keep in mind that these collections include images of three-dimensional objects, like this early 19th century “Russian Bassoon”:
Are you doing a report on how media covers tragic events? The Internet Archive contains 3,000 hours of coverage of the events from 9/11 in the Understanding 9/11: A Television News Archive. This collection is from the video collections held in the Internet Archive.
These are just few of the many collections contained in the Internet Archive. There are 198 thousand collections to choose from.
Objective: In this study, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Report: Long Version (CAARS) in 113 adult clinical archival records.
Method: Forty-five clients had requested evaluation for ADHD, suggesting problems with attention, and 68 requested other services. To examine the CAARS’ ability to differentiate ADHD symptoms from other Axis I symptoms, it was compared with the Personality Assessment Inventory. Results: The two groups differed significantly on the weighted linear combination of the eight subscales of the CAARS, Wilks’s Lambda = .565, F(7, 105) = 11.56, p < .0001, with higher mean scores found among those requesting evaluation of ADHD. z-tests revealed the eight CAARS subscales were more highly correlated with each other, based on the average intercorrelation, than the nine selected clinical scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Somatic Complaints [SOM], Mania [MAN], Paranoia [PAR], Schizophrenia [SCZ], Anxiety [ANX], Anxiety-Related Disorders [ARD], Depression [DEP], Borderline Features [BOR], and Antisocial Features [ANT]). Some unexpectedly high correlations were found between the CAARS and PAI clinical scales (MAN and SCZ).
Conclusion: The results of the present study were mixed, with some analyses yielding positive results with respect to the CAARS’ sensitivity and others suggesting poor specificity.
It is often claimed that theory of mind (ToM) is facilitated by pretend play (PP), or by a particular type of PP, social pretend play (SPP). Here we challenge that view, proposing instead that ToM might be useful for driving SPP, rather than the reverse. We discuss background theory, review pertinent studies, and explain why the “ToM first” view is at least equally likely. -from the article
In 1984, this groundbreaking book offered readers an illuminating window into the workings of the criminal mind and a revolutionary approach to criminal “habilitation.” In 2004, armed with two decades of additional knowledge and insight, Dr. Stanton Samenow explored the subject anew, using his vast expertise to explain the thought patterns of those who commit the crimes we were most concerned with in the new millennium, such as domestic violence, internet victimization, and terrorism. Dr. Samenow’s account is ultimately brilliant, no-nonsense profile of the criminal mind, updated to include new influences and effective methods for dealing with hardened criminals. – Random House
Our #NewBookoftheWeek is on a very pertinent topic: school shootings. Author Jessie Klein is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Adelphi University. In addition, according to NYU Press, she has two decades of various administrative experience in secondary education.
In today’s schools, kids bullying kids is not an occasional occurrence but rather an everyday reality where children learn early that being sensitive, respectful, and kind earns them no respect. Jessie Klein makes the provocative argument that the rise of school shootings across America, and childhood aggression more broadly, are the consequences of a society that actually promotes aggressive and competitive behavior. The Bully Society is a call to reclaim America’s schools from the vicious cycle of aggression that threatens our children and our society at large.
Heartbreaking interviews illuminate how both boys and girls obtain status by acting “masculine”—displaying aggression at one another’s expense as both students and adults police one another to uphold gender stereotypes. Klein shows that the aggressive ritual of gender policing in American culture creates emotional damage that perpetuates violence through revenge, and that this cycle is the main cause of not only the many school shootings that have shocked America, but also related problems in schools, manifesting in high rates of suicide, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, self-cutting, truancy, and substance abuse. After two decades working in schools as a school social worker and professor, Klein proposes ways to transcend these destructive trends—transforming school bully societies into compassionate communities. —New York University Press
You can find a copy of The Bully Society on the “New Book Shelf” in Waterfield Library.